Todd’s Challenge: Grammar & TPS exercise

As many of you have been asking for grammar exercises, and many of you have been having problems using prepositions properly, I have decided to bring back the “Prepositions with Graphs” exercise from last year for you to check you knowledge on graph reading in both verbs and prepositions. Let’s see what you are able to produce! Good luck!

Prepositions with Graphs:

1. Fill in the following box with verb synonyms for the following verbs:

Screen Shot 2017-05-04 at 11.54.19 AM

Grammar Rule

1. Consider the following rules regarding prepositions used in graphs and statistics:Screen Shot 2017-05-04 at 11.55.09 AM

a) Prices rose __________ 50% last year. (bar 1) OR
    Prices rose __________ 50% last year. (bar 2)

b) There was a rise __________ prices last year __________ 50% last year.

Fill in the blanks in the following text with the correct preposition – ONE PER BLANK.

African economic growth
The twilight of the resource curse?
Africa’s growth is being powered by things other than commodities
Jan 10th 2015 | From the Economist print edition

chart 1FOR decades commodity prices have shaped Africa’s economic growth. The continent is home to a third of the planet’s mineral reserves and a tenth of the oil, and it produces two-thirds of the diamonds. Little wonder then that, as a rule, when prices for natural resources and export crops have been high, growth has been good; when they have dipped, so has the continent’s economy (see chart 1).

Over the past decade Africa was among the world’s fastest-growing continents—its average annual rate was more than 5%—buoyed in part by improved governance and economic reforms. Commodity prices were also high. In previous cycles African economies have crashed when the prices of minerals, oil and other commodities have fallen. In 1998-99, during an oil-price fall, Nigeria’s naira lost 80% of its value. African currencies again took a beating during a period of turmoil in commodity markets in 1

Since last year the price __________ oil has fallen __________ half and many metals such as copper and iron ore have also dropped sharply. With commodity prices plunging, will the usual pattern repeat itself?

__________ some economies large drops __________ commodity prices have led __________ currency falls. __________ least ten African currencies dropped __________ more than 10% __________ 2014. But there have been few catastrophic depreciations. This suggests that investors do not see lower commodity prices as a kiss of death. Ghana’s currency, the cedi, was the continent’s worst-performing currency __________ 2014, having lost 26% __________ the dollar. But it tumbled not because investors fret __________ the impact __________ lower commodity prices. __________ fact, Ghana is __________ African standards not especially commodity-dependent (see map). Rather, it has __________ recent years run a lax fiscal policy. __________ 2013 its budget deficit hit 10% __________ GDP.

The mall, not the mine

One reason currencies have been robust may be because economic growth is starting to come from other places. Manufacturing output in the continent is expanding as quickly as the rest of the economy. Growth is even faster in services, which expanded at an average rate of 2.6% per person across Africa between 1996 and 2011. Tourism, in particular, has boomed: the number of foreign visitors doubled and receipts tripled between 2000 and 2012. Many countries, including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria, have recently revised their estimates of GDP to account for their growing non-resource sectors.

Despite falling commodity prices, the outlook also seems favourable. Wonks at the World Bank reckon that Sub-Saharan Africa’s economy will expand by about 5% this year. Telecommunications, transportation and finance are all expected to spur economic growth.

What explains Africa’s increasing economic diversification? A big pickup in investment helps. That has arisen partly because governments have worked hard to make life better for investors. The World Bank’s annual “Doing Business” report revealed that in 2013/14 sub-Saharan Africa did more to improve regulation than any other region. Mauritius is 28th on the bank’s list of the easiest places to do business. Rwanda, which 20 years ago suffered a terrible genocide, is now deemed friendlier to investors than Italy.

Further TPS Questions:

1. Determine if the following statements are true or false.

a) The expression little wonder (p.1) can best be replaced by it is virtually incredible.
b) The expression as a rule (p.1) can best be replaced by all in all.
c) The expression in part (p.2) can best be replaced by as a whole.
d) The expression in particular (p.4) can best be replaced by on the whole.

2. Determine if the following statements are true or false.

a) The terms “crashed” (p.2) and “plunging” (p.3) have the same semantic meaning as “plummet”.
b) The terms “drops” and “falls” (p.3) are interchangeable both grammatically and semantically.
c) The terms “output” (p.4) and “outlook” (p.5) both have the semantic meaning of a “future perspective”.
d) The terms “reckon” (p.5) and “deemed” (p.6) both have the meaning of “consider”.

3. In paragraph 5, the terms “wonks” and “spur” can best be replaced, respectively, by which of the following?

a) pundits and boost
b) soothsayers and stir up
c) experts and bolster
d) gurus and goad
e) stimulate and authorities


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