Todd’s Challenge: answer key

As many of you have been asking for grammar exercises, and many of you have been having problems using prepositions properly, I have decided to bring back the “Prepositions with Graphs” exercise from last year for you to check you knowledge on graph reading in both verbs and prepositions. Let’s see what you are able to produce! Good luck!

Prepositions with Graphs

1. Fill in the following box with verb synonyms for the following verbs:

Screen Shot 2017-05-05 at 11.29.03 AM

Grammar Rule

1. Consider the following rules regarding prepositions used in graphs and statistics:Screen Shot 2017-05-04 at 11.55.09 AM

a) Prices rose ___TO___ 50% last year. (bar 1) OR
     Prices rose ___BY___ 50% last year. (bar 2)

b) There was a rise ___IN__ prices last year __OF__ 50% last year.

Answer explanation:
After the verb form:
“to” – rise to a specific limit;
“by” – rise by a specific amount of change.
OBS – When the amount of change and the limit are the same, then “to” or “by” will be determined by the overall context.
After the noun form, use “in” for concepts and “of” for numerical values.

Fill in the blanks in the following text with the correct preposition – ONE PER BLANK.

African economic growth
The twilight of the resource curse?
Africa’s growth is being powered by things other than commodities
Jan 10th 2015 | From the Economist print edition

FOR decades commodity prices have shaped Africa’s economic growth. The continent is home to a third of the planet’s mineral reserves and a tenth of the oil, and it produces two-thirds of the diamonds. Little wonder then that, as a rule, when prices for natural resources and export crops have been high, growth has been good; when they have dipped, so has the continent’s economy (see chart 1).

Over the past decade Africa was among the world’s fastest-growing continents—its average annual rate was more than 5%—buoyed in part by improved governance and economic reforms. Commodity prices were also high. In previous cycles African economies have crashed when the prices of minerals, oil and other commodities have fallen. In 1998-99, during an oil-price fall, Nigeria’s naira lost 80% of its value. African currencies again took a beating during a period of turmoil in commodity markets in 2009.

Since last year the price __OF__ oil has fallen ___BY___ half and many metals such as copper and iron ore have also dropped sharply. With commodity prices plunging, will the usual pattern repeat itself?

__IN___ some economies large drops ___IN___ commodity prices have led __TO__ currency falls. ___AT___ least ten African currencies dropped ___BY___ more than 10% ___IN___ 2014. But there have been few catastrophic depreciations. This suggests that investors do not see lower commodity prices as a kiss of death. Ghana’s currency, the cedi, was the continent’s worst-performing currency ___IN___ 2014, having lost 26% ___AGAINST__ the dollar. But it tumbled not because investors fret ___ABOUT/OVER ___ the impact __OF__ lower commodity prices. ___IN___ fact, Ghana is ___BY___ African standards not especially commodity-dependent (see map). Rather, it has ___IN___ recent years run a lax fiscal policy. ___IN___ 2013 its budget deficit hit 10% ___OF___ GDP.

The mall, not the mine

One reason currencies have been robust may be because economic growth is starting to come from other places. Manufacturing output in the continent is expanding as quickly as the rest of the economy. Growth is even faster in services, which expanded at an average rate of 2.6% per person across Africa between 1996 and 2011. Tourism, in particular, has boomed: the number of foreign visitors doubled and receipts tripled between 2000 and 2012. Many countries, including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria, have recently revised their estimates of GDP to account for their growing non-resource sectors.

Despite falling commodity prices, the outlook also seems favourable. Wonks at the World Bank reckon that Sub-Saharan Africa’s economy will expand by about 5% this year. Telecommunications, transportation and finance are all expected to spur economic growth.

What explains Africa’s increasing economic diversification? A big pickup in investment helps. That has arisen partly because governments have worked hard to make life better for investors. The World Bank’s annual “Doing Business” report revealed that in 2013/14 sub-Saharan Africa did more to improve regulation than any other region. Mauritius is 28th on the bank’s list of the easiest places to do business. Rwanda, which 20 years ago suffered a terrible genocide, is now deemed friendlier to investors than Italy.

Further TPS Questions:

1. Determine if the following statements are true or false.

a) The expression little wonder (p.1) can best be replaced by it is virtually incredible. FALSE
b) The expression as a rule (p.1) (generally) can best be replaced by all in all. (always)FALSE
c) The expression in part (partially) (p.2) can best be replaced by as a whole (totally). – FALSE
d) The expression in particular (p.4) (specifically) can best be replaced by on the whole. (generally)FALSE

2. Determine if the following statements are true or false.

a) The terms “crashed” (p.2) and “plunging” (p.3) have the same semantic meaning as “plummet”. – TRUE
b) The terms “drops” and “falls” (p.3) are interchangeable both grammatically and semantically. – TRUE
c) The terms “output” (p.4) and “outlook” (p.5) both have the semantic meaning of a “future perspective”. – FALSE
d) The terms “reckon” (p.5) and “deemed” (p.6) both have the meaning of “consider”. – TRUE

3. In paragraph 5, the terms “wonks” and “spur” can best be replaced, respectively, by which of the following?

a) pundits and boost
b) soothsayers and stir up
c) experts and bolster
d) gurus and goad
e) stimulate and authorities (terms are inverted)





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